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‏الحج (The Book of Pilgrimage)

No. 2801

Abu Nadra reported: Ibn'Abbas commanded the performance of Mut'a putting lhram for 'Umra during the months of Dhu'I-Hijja and after completing it. then putting on Ibrim for Hajj), but Ibn Zubair forbade to do it. I made a mention of it to Jabir b. Abdullih and he said: It is through me that this hadith has been circulated. We entered into the state of Ihram as Tamattu' with the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam). When 'Umar was Installed as Caliph, he said: Verily Allaah made permissible for His Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) whatever He liked and as Re liked. And (every command) of the Holy Qur'an has been revealed for every occasion. So accomplish Hajj and Umra for Allaah as Allaah has commanded you; and confirm by (proper conditions) the marriage of those women (with whom you have performed Mut'a). And any person would come to me with a marriage of appointed duration (Mut'a), I would stone him (to death). Qatada narrated this hadith with the same chain of transmitters saying: (That 'Umar also said): Separate your Hajj from 'Umra, for that is the most complete Hajj, and complete your Umra.

No. 2802

Jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allaah be pleased with them) reported: We came with the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) pronouncing Talbiya for Hajj, and the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded us to make (our Ihram) into that of Umra.

FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE OF THE Prophet OF Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam)

Just as the first revelation in the cave of Hira' marks the advent of the apostolic mission of Muhammad (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam), similarly his Farewell Pilgrimage marks its crowning glory. Opinions differ as to when Hajj became obligatory but the commonly accepted opinion is that it was in the eighth year of Hijra that Allaah declared it as one of the five fundamentals of Islam. In the ninth year of Hijra the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) sent Abu Bakr as the leader of the Hajj delegation but he himself did not go. Hadrat Abu Bakr was later on joined by Hadrat Ali in order to make a sure declaration on behalf of the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) which concerned the freedom from obligation in regard to those idolatrous tribes who had shown no respect for the treaties which they had entered into with the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam). This declaration is contains in the opening verses of Sura Tauba.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) spent this year in making preparations for the Hajj in the tenth year of Hijra which coincided with the sixty-third year (the last year) of his life. Every attempt was, therefore, made to take full advantage of this great assembly. Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. It was necessary for them since they should learn by first-hand knowledge the several injunctions and practices of the Pilgrimage-free from all taints of ignorance-an ideal pattern which was to be kept intact in its pristine glory for all times to come. Not only the rites and rituals of the Pilgrimage were to be finally explained by the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) but all those things which had any concern with Islam had been finalized.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) delivered a khutba on the 24th of Dhi-Qa'da on the occasion of the Friday prayer and gave the Muslims necessary instructions relating to Hajj. Next day, I. e. on the 25th of Dhi-Qa'da, he set out after Zuhr prayer on a journey for Hajj along with thousands of his devoted Companions. The 'Asr prayer was offered at Dhu'l-Hulaifa. The caravan spent the night there and it was there after the Zuhr prayer that the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions put on Ihram and proceeded towards Mecca. They reached their destination on the 4th of Dhu'l-Hijja pronouncing Talbiya (Labbaik, Labbaik, Allaahumma Labbaik).

As the caravan moved on the number of participants swelled till, according to some of the narrators, it reached more than one lakh and thirty thousands. The Farewell Pilgrimage is one of the most important occasions in the sacred life of Muhammad (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam). Apart from the rites and rituals, the addresses and speeches of the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) succinctly sum up the teachings of Islam.

No. 2803

Ja'far b Muhammad reported on the authority of his father: We went to Jabir b. Abdullah and he began inquiring about the people (who had gone to see him) till it was my turn. I said: I am Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Husain. He placed his hand upon my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one and then placed his palm on my chest (in order to bless me), and I was, during those days, a young boy, and he said: You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask. And I asked him but as he was blind (he could not respond to me immediately), and the time for prayer came. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. And whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down on account of being short (in size). Another mantle was, however, lying on the clothes rack near by. And he led us in the prayer. I said to him: Tell me about the Hajj of Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam). And he pointed with his hand nine, and then stated: The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) stayed in (Medina) for nine years but did not perform Hajj, then he made a public announcement in the tenth year to the effect that Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) was about to perform the Hajj. A large number of persons came to Medina and all of them were anxious to follow the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and do according to his doing. We set out with him till we reached Dhu'l-Hulaifa. Asma' daughter of Umais gave birth to Muhammad b. Abu Bakr. She sent message to the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) asking him: What should 1 do? He (the Prophet) said: Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on Ihram. The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) then prayed in the mosque and then mounted al-Qaswa (his she-camel) and it stood erect with him on its back at al-Baida'. And I saw as far as I could see in front of me but riders and pedestrians, and also on my right and on my left and behind me like this. And the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) was prominent among us and the (revelation) of the Holy Qur'an was descending upon him. And it is he who knows (its true) significance. And whatever he did, we also did that. He pronounced the Oneness of Allaah (saying):" Labbaik,0 Allaah, Labbaik, Labbaik. Thou hast no partner, praise and grace is Thine and the Sovereignty too; Thou hast no partner."

And the people also pronounced this Talbiya which they pronounce (today). The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) did not reject anything out of it. But the Messenger of Allaah (May peace. be upon him) adhered to his own Talbiya. Jabir (Allaah be pleased with him) said: We did not have any other intention but that of Hajj only, being unaware of the Umra (at that season), but when we came with him to the House, he touched the pillar and (made seven circuits) running three of them and walking four. And then going to the Station of Ibrahim, he recited:" And adopt the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer." And this Station was between him and the House. My father said (and I do not know whether he had made a mention of it but that was from Allaah's Prophet [sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam] that he recited in two rak'ahs:" say: He is Allaah One," and say:" Say: 0 unbelievers." He then returned to the pillar (Hajar Aswad) and kissed it. He then went out of the gate to al-Safa' and as he reached near it he recited:" Al-Safa' and al-Marwa are among the signs appointed by Allaah," (adding: ) I begin with what Allaah (has commanded me) to begin. He first mounted al-Safa' till he saw the House, and facing Qibla he declared the Oneness of Allaah and glorified Him, and said:" there is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allaah, One, there is no partner with Him. His is the Sovereignty. to Him praise is due. and He is Powerful over everything. there is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allaah alone, Who fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone." He then made supplication in the course of that saying such words three times. He then descended and walked towards al-Marwa, and when his feet came down in the bottom of the valley, he ran, and when he began to ascend he walked till he reached al-Marwa. There he did as he had done at al-Safa'. And when it was his last running at al-Marwa he said: If I had known beforehand what I have come to know afterwards, I would not have brought sacrificial animals and would have performed an 'Umra. So, he who among you has not the sacrificial animals with him should put off Ihram and treat it as an Umra. Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju'sham got up and said: Messenger of Allaah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever? Thereupon the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) intertwined the fingers (of one hand) into another and said twice: The 'Umra has become incorporated in the Hajj (adding):" No, but for ever and ever." 'All came from the Yemen with the sacrificial animals for the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and found Fatimah (Allaah be pleased with her) to be one among those who had put off Ihram and had put on dyed clothes and had applied antimony. He (Hadrat'Ali) showed disapproval to it, whereupon she said: My father has commanded me to do this. He (the narrator) said that 'Ali used to say in Iraq: I went to the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) showing annoyance at Fatimah for what she had done, and asked the (verdict) of Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) regarding what she had narrated from him, and told him that I was angry with her, whereupon he said: She has told the truth, she has told the truth. (The Prophet then asked 'Ali): What did you say when you undertook to go for Hajj? I ('Ali) said: 0 Allaah, I am putting on Ihram for the same purpose as Thy Messenger has put it on.

He said: I have with me sacrificial animals, so do not put off the Ihram. He (Jabir) said: The total number of those sacrificial animals brought by 'Ali from the Yemen and of those brought by the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) was one hundred. Then all the people except the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and those who had with them sacrificial animals, put off Ihram, and got their hair clipped; when it was the day of Tarwiya (8th of Dhu'l-Hijja) they went to Mina and put on the Ihram for Hajj and the Messenger of Ailah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) rode and led the noon, afternoon, sunset 'Isha' and dawn prayers. He then waited a little till the sun rose, and commanded that a tent of hair should be pitched at Namira. The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) then set out and the Quraish did not doubt that he would halt at al-Mash'ar al-Haram (the sacred site) as the Quraish used to do in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam), however, passed on till he came to 'Arafa and he found that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he got down till the sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa should be brought and saddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed the people saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours. Behold! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days of Ignorance.

The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi'a b. al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'd and killed by Hudhail. And the usury of she pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of 'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allaah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allaah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allaah. You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. I have left among you the Book of Allaah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said):" O Allaah, be witness. 0 Allaah, be witness," saying it thrice. (Bilal then) pronounced Adhan and later on Iqama and he (the Prophet) led the noon prayer. He (Bilal) then uttered Iqama and he (the Prophet) led the afternoon prayer and he observed no other prayer in between the two.

The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) then mounted his camel and came to the place of stay, making his she-camel al-Qaswa, turn towards the side where there we are rocks, having the path taken by those who went on foot in front of him, and faced the Qibla. He kept standing there till the sun set, and the yellow light had somewhat gone, and the disc of the sun had disappeared. He made Usama sit behind him, and he pulled the nosestring of Qaswa so forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and he pointed out to the people with his right hand to be moderate (in speed), and whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he slightly loosened it (the nose-string of his camel) till she climbed up and this is how he reached al-Muzdalifa. There he led the evening and 'Isha prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamas and did not glorify (Allaah) in between them (i. e. he did not observe supererogatory rak'ahs between Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers). The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) then lay down till dawn and offered the dawn prayer with an Adhan and Iqama when the morning light was clear. He again mounted al-Qaswa, and when he came to al-Mash'ar al-Haram, he faced towards Qibla, supplicated Him, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Uniqueness (La ilaha illa Allaah) and Oneness, and kept standing till the daylight was very clear.

He then went quickly before the sun rose, and seated behind him was al-Fadl b. 'Abbas and he was a man having beautiful hair and fair complexion and handsome face. As the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) was moving on, there was also going a group of women (side by side with them). Al-Fadl began to look at them. The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) placed his hand on the face of Fadl who then turned his face to the other side, and began to see, and the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) turned his hand to the other side and placed it on the face of al-Fadl. He again turned his face to the other side till he came to the bottom of Muhassir. 1680 He urged her (al-Qaswa) a little, and, following the middle road, which comes out at the greatest jamra, he came to the jamra which is near the tree. At this be threw seven small pebbles, saying Allaah-o-Akbar while throwing every one of them in a manner in which the small pebbles are thrown (with the help of fingers) and this he did in the bottom of the valley. He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three (camels) with his own hand. Then he gave the remaining number to 'All who sacrificed them, and he shared him in his sacrifice. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from each animal sacrificed should be put in a pot, and when it was cooked, both of them (the Prophet and Hadrat 'All) took some meat out of it and drank its soup. The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) again rode and came to the House, and offered the Zuhr prayer at Mecca. He came to the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib, who were supplying water at Zamzam, and said: Draw water. O Bani 'Abd al-Muttalib; were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you, I would have drawn it along with you. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it.

No. 2804

Ja'far b. Muhammad narrated on the authority of his father thus: I came to Jabir b. Abdullah and asked him about the (Farewell) Pilgrimage of Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam). The rest of the hadith is the same, but with the addition of this:" There was one Abu Sayyara among the Arabs, (of pre-Islamic period) who carried (people from Muzdalifa to Mini). As the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) set out from Muzdalifa to al-Mash'ar al-Haram, the Quraish were certain that he would halt there and that would be his station. But he passed on (without staying) there. and paid no heed to it till he came to 'Arafat and there he stayed."

No. 2805

Jabir reported Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) as saying: I have sacrificed (the animals) here, and the whole of Mini is a place for sacrifice; so sacrifice your animals at your places. 1 have stayed here (near these rocks), and the whole of Arafat is a place for stay. And I have stayed here (at Muzdalifa near Mash'ar al-Haram and the whole of Muzdalifa) is a place for stay (i. e. one is permitted to spend night in any part of it, as one likes).

No. 2806

Jabir b. Abdullah (Allaah be pleased with them) reported that when Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) proceeded to Mecca, he came to it (the Black Stone). he kissed it. and moved to his right. and moved quickly in three circuits, and walked in four circuits.

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